Abstract : During meiosis, homologous chromosomes (homologs) pair and undergo genetic recombination via assembly and disassembly of the synaptonemal complex. Meiotic recombination is initiated by excess formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), among which a subset are repaired by reciprocal genetic exchange, called crossovers (COs). COs generate genetic variations across generations, profoundly affecting genetic diversity and breeding. At least one CO between homologs is essential for the first meiotic chromosome segregation, but generally only one and fewer than three inter-homolog COs occur in plants. CO frequency and distribution are biased along chromosomes, suppressed in centromeres, and controlled by pro-CO, anti-CO, and epigenetic factors. Accurate and high-throughput detection of COs is important for our understanding of CO formation and chromosome behavior. Here, we review advanced approaches that enable precise measurement of the location, frequency, and genomic landscapes of COs in plants, with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana.
So-Hee Ahn , Seung-Wook Ryu , Hojun Choi , Sangmin You , Jun Park , and Chulhee ChoiMol. Cells 2022; 45(5): 284-290 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.2033
Abstract : Process of manufacturing therapeutics exosome development for commercialization. The development of exosome treatment starts at the bench, and in order to be commercialized, it goes through the manufacturing, characterization, and formulation stages, production under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions for clinical use, and close consultation with regulatory authorities. Exosome, a type of nanoparticles also known as small extracellular vesicles are gaining attention as novel therapeutics for various diseases because of their ability to deliver genetic or bioactive molecules to recipient cells. Although many pharmaceutical companies are gradually developing exosome therapeutics, numerous hurdles remain regarding manufacture of clinical-grade exosomes for therapeutic use. In this mini-review, we will discuss the manufacturing challenges of therapeutic exosomes, including cell line development, upstream cell culture, and downstream purification process. In addition, developing proper formulations for exosome storage and, establishing good manufacturing practice facility for producing therapeutic exosomes remains as challenges for developing clinicalgrade exosomes. However, owing to the lack of consensus regarding the guidelines for manufacturing therapeutic exosomes, close communication between regulators and companies is required for the successful development of exosome therapeutics. This review shares the challenges and perspectives regarding the manufacture and quality control of clinical grade exosomes.
RNA signatures from a single blood sampling during pregnancy can detect a pathologic condition before its onset.
Sun-Kyung Lee *
Bongsoo Choi , Do Young Hyeon , Juhun Lee , Terri A. Long , Daehee Hwang , and Inhwan HwangMol. Cells 2022; 45(5): 294-305 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.2029
Abstract : E3 ligase BRUTUS (BTS), a putative iron sensor, is expressed in both root and shoot tissues in seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. The role of BTS in root tissues has been well established. However, its role in shoot tissues has been scarcely studied. Comparative transcriptome analysis with shoot and root tissues revealed that BTS is involved in regulating energy metabolism by modulating expression of mitochondrial and chloroplast genes in shoot tissues. Moreover, in shoot tissues of bts-1 plants, levels of ADP and ATP and the ratio of ADP/ATP were greatly increased with a concomitant decrease in levels of soluble sugar and starch. The decreased starch level in bts-1 shoot tissues was restored to the level of shoot tissues of wild-type plants upon vanadate treatment. Through this study, we expand the role of BTS to regulation of energy metabolism in the shoot in addition to its role of iron deficiency response in roots.
Hyeijung Yoo , Hyun Jung Kim , Soo Hyun Yang , Gi Hoon Son , Jeong-An Gim , Hyun Woo Lee , and Hyun KimMol. Cells 2022; 45(5): 306-316 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.2257
Abstract : Chronic stress contributes to the risk of developing depression; the habenula, a nucleus in epithalamus, is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using genome-wide gene expression analysis, we analyzed the transcriptome of the habenula in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress for 14 days. We identified 379 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were affected by chronic stress. These genes were enriched in neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, the cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) signaling pathway, circadian entrainment, and synaptic signaling from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and responded to corticosteroids, positive regulation of lipid transport, anterograde trans-synaptic signaling, and chemical synapse transmission from the Gene Ontology analysis. Based on protein–protein interaction network analysis of the DEGs, we identified neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions, circadian entrainment, and cholinergic synapse-related subclusters. Additionally, cell type and habenular regional expression of DEGs, evaluated using a recently published single-cell RNA sequencing study (GSE137478), strongly suggest that DEGs related to neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and trans-synaptic signaling are highly enriched in medial habenular neurons. Taken together, our findings provide a valuable set of molecular targets that may play important roles in mediating the habenular response to stress and the onset of chronic stress-induced depressive behaviors.
Wenbo Zhou , Huiyan Wang , Yuqi Yang , Fang Guo , Bin Yu , and Zhaoliang SuMol. Cells 2022; 45(5): 317-328 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2021.0211
Abstract : Trophoblasts, important functional cells in the placenta, play a critical role in maintaining placental function. The heterogeneity of trophoblasts has been reported, but little is known about the trophoblast subtypes and distinctive functions during preeclampsia (PE). In this study, we aimed to gain insight into the cell type-specific transcriptomic changes by performing unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of placental tissue samples, including those of patients diagnosed with PE and matched healthy controls. A total of 29,006 cells were identified in 11 cell types, including trophoblasts and immune cells, and the functions of the trophoblast subtypes in the PE group and the control group were also analyzed. As an important trophoblast subtype, extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) were further divided into 4 subgroups, and their functions were preliminarily analyzed. We found that some biological processes related to pregnancy, hormone secretion and immunity changed in the PE group. We also identified and analyzed the regulatory network of transcription factors (TFs) identified in the EVTs, among which 3 modules were decreased in the PE group. Then, through in vitro cell experiments, we found that in one of the modules, CEBPB and GTF2B may be involved in EVT dysfunction in PE. In conclusion, our study showed the different transcriptional profiles and regulatory modules in trophoblasts between placentas in the control and PE groups at the single-cell level; these changes may be involved in the pathological process of PE, providing a new molecular theoretical basis for preeclamptic trophoblast dysfunction.
Heng Lin , Peng Hu , Hongyu Zhang , Yong Deng , Zhiqing Yang , and Leida ZhangMol. Cells 2022; 45(5): 329-342 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.2176
Abstract : The liver is the predominant metastatic site for pancreatic cancer. However, the factors that determine the liver metastasis and the specific molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we used human pancreatic cancer cell line Hs766T to establish Hs766T-L3, a subline of Hs766T with stable liver metastatic ability. We performed RNA sequencing of Hs766T-L3 and its parental cell line Hs766T, and revealed huge differences in gene expression patterns and pathway activation between these two cell lines. We correlated the difference in pathway activation with the expression of the four core transcriptional factors including STAT1, NR2F2, GATA2, and SMAD4. Using the TCGA database, we examined the relative expression of these transcription factors (TFs) in pan-cancer and their relationship with the prognosis of the pancreatic cancer. Among these TFs, we considered GATA2 is closely involved in tumor metastasis and may serve as a potential metastatic driver. Further in vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed that GATA2-mediated transcriptional activation of Notch3 promotes the liver metastasis of Hs766T-L3, and knockdown of either GATA2 or Notch3 reduces the metastatic ability of Hs766T-L3. Therefore, we claim that GATA2 may serve as a metastatic driver of pancreatic cancer and a potential therapeutic target to treat liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer.
Byeonggeun Kang , Byunghee Kang , Tae-Young Roh , Rho Hyun Seong , and Won KimMol. Cells 2022; 45(5): 343-352 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0001
Abstract : The advent of the assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) has shown great potential as a leading method for analyzing the genome-wide profiling of chromatin accessibility. A comprehensive reference to the ATAC-seq dataset for disease progression is important for understanding the regulatory specificity caused by genetic or epigenetic changes. In this study, we present a genome-wide chromatin accessibility profile of 44 liver samples spanning the full histological spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We analyzed the ATAC-seq signal enrichment, fragment size distribution, and correlation coefficients according to the histological severity of NAFLD (healthy control vs steatosis vs fibrotic nonalcoholic steatohepatitis), demonstrating the high quality of the dataset. Consequently, 112,303 merged regions (genomic regions containing one or multiple overlapping peak regions) were identified. Additionally, we found differentially accessible regions (DARs) and performed transcription factor binding motif enrichment analysis and de novo motif analysis to determine new biomarker candidates. These data revealed the generegulatory interactions and noncoding factors that can affect NAFLD progression. In summary, our study provides a valuable resource for the human epigenome by applying an advanced approach to facilitate diagnosis and treatment by understanding the non-coding genome of NAFLD.